Oil executive Ben Kenny has spent two and a half years and $24 million improving his golf course along the banks of the Chattahoochee River, adding lakes, streams, a new putting green and driving range.
Kenny is also adding a tennis and swim center with French Open-style red-clay courts at the Horseshoe Bend Country Club in Roswell, Ga., 22 miles north of Atlanta. He’s confident the upgrades at the 40-year-old course, where golfer Phil Mickelson won three American Junior Golf Association Tournament of Champions titles, will pay off.
“People think I’m crazy, but I’m not crazy,” said Kenny, 70, president of Atlanta-based petroleum-storage firm Perimeter Oil Co., who bought Horseshoe Bend for $6.1 million three years ago. “If you run the revenue numbers, I view it as a very solid investment.”
Course owners and real estate investors are betting on a comeback following a downturn that was “by far the toughest ever in the industry,” according to Charles Staples, co-founder of Fore Golf, which has 12 courses in Florida, Virginia and Maryland. Property prices are climbing and shutdowns have slowed as recreational golfers return to the hobby after scaling back club memberships during the recession.
Prices for U.S. golf courses climbed 57 percent in 2013, said Steven Ekovich, vice president of investments at Marcus & Millichap Inc.’s National Golf & Resort Properties Group. The average sale price was $4.25 million last year for operational, regulation-length golf courses with at least 18 holes valued at $250,000 to $75 million.
Up from the bottom
The market hit its low the previous year, when the average price fell to $2.7 million. Values remain below the 2006 peak of $7.33 million, Marcus & Millichap said.
“After bottoming out in 2012, the golf-course sales market looks to be recovering and stabilizing,” Ekovich said. “Bank financing is slowly returning, the average sales price is rebounding, there are fewer foreclosures and bank repossessions, and more courses are back to producing positive cash flow.”
Last month, Manassas, Va.-based Fore Golf completed the sale of Feather Sound Country Club in Clearwater, Fla., to Premier Club Holdings LLC for $5.13 million. The club was on the market for only about three months, Staples said.
“The sale actually happened quickly,” he said. “The course has an outstanding location, but it surprised me a bit. We’ve seen activity pick up on the buy side, but for a while there were sales at extremely low prices. But recently prices have improved, so we thought it’s a good time to give it a go.”
Dale Schmidt, founder of Premier Club Holdings, didn’t return calls seeking comment on the purchase.
In 2013, CBRE Group Inc.’s Golf & Resort Properties division brokered the most sales of 18-hole, standalone golf courses in eight years. It sold 15 courses for an average price of $4.59 million, compared with an eight-year low of $1.18 million in 2011. The peak of $7.23 million was reached in 2006.
“There are two different concepts in the golf business: the joining and playing, so the business side and the transaction side of things,” said Jeff Woolson, executive vice president and managing director at CBRE’s golf division. “Both have improved.”
Private-club membership numbers are improving most at top-performing courses, according to Henry DeLozier, principal at Toronto-based Global Golf Advisors Inc.
At Horseshoe Bend in Georgia, the number of members has climbed by 100, to 650, since Kenny bought the course in 2011. Last year it, was ranked by Golf Digest as one of the best new courses, along with Donald Trump’s Trump National Doral Miami. The upgrades have helped boost Horseshoe Bend’s dues revenue 94 percent to $3.49 million, and Kenny said he expects to expand membership to 1,000 following the renovations.
At Donald Trump’s 13 U.S. courses, membership numbers have increased each year and dues haven’t dropped, said his son Eric Trump, executive vice president of development and acquisitions for Trump Organization.
“For our type of members, the last recession just meant joining one or two instead of four or five of the best courses,” he said. “The existing membership at all of our courses has gone up every year.”
Trump said the company “invests heavily” in its courses to increase customer loyalty, including $250 million put into Doral after its 2012 purchase of the course, where Tiger Woods won his 76th PGA Tour event last year.
The company is seeking more golf-course acquisitions after completing four in the U.S. in 2012 and none last year, Trump said.
Golf-course financing has become more conservative too, with a greater focus on operations — membership numbers, operating costs and revenue — than potential property values in the future, said Chris Balestrino, principal at Scottsdale, Ariz.-based lender Park Place Equity LLC.
The firm has provided about $20 million in golf-course loans in the past six months, up from “essentially none” from 2009 to 2011, Balestrino said. Today, Park Place protects itself by requiring recourse on almost all its loans, he said.
Course owners such as Kenny continue to have faith in the industry. He wants to leave Horseshoe Bend to his two grown stepchildren, who help him run the country club.
“I’m very happy with my investment,” he said. “It’s nice to look out the window at a golf course. It beats looking at a stock portfolio that 13 guys are manipulating to try to beat me. You can’t duplicate a real estate investment over time.”